…the older Gordievsky never wavered in his devotion, even when his faith demanded that he take part in unspeakable crimes. In 1932, he helped enforce the “Sovietization” of Kazakhstan, organizing the expropriation of food from peasants to feed the Soviet armies and cities. Around 1.5 million people perished in the resulting famine. Anton saw state-induced starvation at close quarters.
In Stalin’s paranoid police state, the safest way to ensure survival was to denounce someone else. “Better that ten innocent people should suffer than one spy get away,” said Nikolai Yezhov, chief of the NKVD.
But on closer examination there were fissures in the family façade, and layers of deception beneath the surface. Anton Gordievsky never spoke about what he had done during the famines, the purges, and the terror. The elder Gordievsky was a prime example of the species Homo Sovieticus, an obedient state servant forged by Communist repression. But underneath he was fearful, horrified, and perhaps gnawed by guilt. Oleg later came to see his father as “a frightened man.
With a peasant’s ingrained common sense, she understood the caprice and vindictiveness of state terror, but kept her mouth shut.
歐列格．戈傑夫斯基在一個關係緊密而慈愛，卻又充斥著欺瞞的家庭裡成長。安東．戈傑夫斯基尊崇共產黨，自詡為共產主義的無畏支持者，骨子裡卻是個渺小而驚恐的人，並親眼目睹過駭人的事件。理想的國安會妻子奧爾嘉．戈傑夫斯基，暗中對體制心存蔑視。歐列格的外婆偷偷敬拜著違法且被取締的上帝。家中的成人全都把真正的感受深藏不露 ── 不向彼此或其他人表達。在史達林俄國令人窒息的服從之中，私下相信不同的事物是有可能的，但誠實表達卻太過危險，就連對自己的家人說實話也一樣。從兒時開始，歐列格就看到了雙重人生是有可能的，可以既愛著身邊的人，又隱藏自己內在的真正自我；可以向外面的世界表現出一副樣貌，心中卻是另一回事。
Oleg Gordievsky grew up in a tight-knit, loving family suffused with duplicity. Anton Gordievsky venerated the Party and proclaimed himself a fearless upholder of Communism, but inside was a small and terrified man who had witnessed terrible events. Olga Gordievsky, the ideal KGB wife, nursed a secret disdain for the system. Oleg’s grandmother secretly worshipped an illegal, outlawed God. None of the adults in the family revealed what they really felt—to one another, or anyone else. Amid the stifling conformity of Stalin’s Russia, it was possible to believe differently in secret but far too dangerous for honesty, even with members of your own family. From boyhood, Oleg saw that it was possible to live a double life, to love those around you while concealing your true inner self, to appear to be one person to the external world and quite another inside.
國際關係學院是蘇聯最菁英的大學，亨利．季辛吉（Henry Kissinger）稱之為「俄國哈佛」。該校由蘇聯外交部經營，是外交官、科學家、經濟學家、政治人物最重要的訓練所 ── 間諜也是。戈傑夫斯基學習歷史、地理、經濟學和國際關係，當然，全被共產主義意識型態的扭曲稜鏡折射過。學院講授五十六種外語，比世界上任何一間大學都多。
The Institute of International Relations was the Soviet Union’s most elite university, described by Henry Kissinger as “the Russian Harvard.” Run by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, it was the premier training ground for diplomats, scientists, economists, politicians—and spies. Gordievsky studied history, geography, economics, and international relations, all through the warping prism of Communist ideology. The institute provided instruction in fifty-six languages, more than any other university in the world.
At the age of nineteen, Gordievsky took up cross-country running. Something about the solitary nature of the sport appealed to him, the rhythm of intense exertion over a long period, in private competition with himself, testing his own limits. Oleg could be gregarious, attractive to women, and flirtatious. His looks were bluntly handsome, with hair swept back from his forehead and open, rather soft features. In repose, his expression seemed stern, but when his eyes flashed with dark humor, his face lit up. In company he was often convivial and comradely, but there was something hard and hidden inside. He was not lonely, or a loner, but he was comfortable in his own company.
國安會在外國運行兩種不同的間諜。第一種在官方身分掩護下工作，通常是蘇聯大使館或領事館人員、文化參事或軍方武官、特派記者或貿易代表。有外交人員身分做為保護，意味著這些「合法」間諜一旦行跡敗露，不能以間諜罪起訴，只能宣告為「不受歡迎人物」（persona non grata）驅逐出境。反之，「非法派遣」間諜（nelegal）沒有官方身分，通常使用假名，攜帶偽造文件旅行，無論派駐到哪一國，就是不露痕跡地融入當地。這些間諜在西方稱為「非官方身分掩護人員」（NOCs, Non-Official Cover）。國安會在世界各地布置非法派遣間諜，他們喬裝為一般公民，深藏不露，伺機顛覆。他們和合法間諜一樣蒐集情資、吸收特務，並實施多種形式的破壞。
The KGB ran two distinct species of spy in foreign countries. The first worked under formal cover, as a member of the Soviet diplomatic or consular staff, a cultural or military attaché, accredited journalist or trade representative. Diplomatic protection meant that these “legal” spies could not be prosecuted for espionage if their activities were uncovered, but only declared persona non grata and expelled from the country. By contrast, an “illegal” spy (nelegal, in Russian) had no official status, usually traveled under a false name with fake papers, and simply blended invisibly into whatever country he or she was posted to. (In the West such spies are known as NOCs, standing for non-official cover.) The KGB planted illegals all over the world, who posed as ordinary citizens, submerged and subversive. Like legal spies, they gathered information, recruited agents, and conducted various forms of espionage.
Gordievsky watched in horrified awe as East German workers tore up the streets alongside the border to make them impassable to vehicles and troops unrolled miles of barbed wire. Some East Germans, realizing that their escape route was closing fast, made desperate bids for freedom by clambering over the barricades or attempting to swim the canals that formed part of the border. Guards lined up along the frontier with orders to shoot anyone attempting to cross from East to West. The new wall made a powerful impression on the twenty-two-year-old Gordievsky: “Only a physical barrier, reinforced by armed guards in their watchtowers, could keep the East Germans in their socialist paradise and stop them fleeing to the West.”
The brothers attended a performance of the Christmas Oratorio, which left Oleg “intensely moved.” Russia seemed “a spiritual desert” by comparison, where only approved composers could be heard, and “class hostile” church music, such as Bach’s, was deemed decadent and bourgeois, and banned.
回到捷克後不久，卡普蘭寫了封信給戈傑夫斯基。在關於自己約會的女人，以及哪天戈傑夫斯基造訪，他們將會一同享有的美好時光（「我們會把布拉格所有酒吧和酒窖都清空」）等等閒聊中，卡普蘭提出了一個意味深長的請求：「歐列格，你手上會不會有葉夫圖申科［Yevgeny Yevtushenko］寫史達林那首詩的那份《真理報》？」他提到的那首詩是葉夫圖申科的〈史達林的繼承人們〉（Heirs of Stalin），這是俄國最敢言、最有影響力的其中一位詩人對史達林主義的直接抨擊。
Soon after his return to Czechoslovakia, Kaplan wrote a letter to Gordievsky. In among the gossip about the girls he had met and the fine time they would have together if his friend came to visit (“We’ll empty all the pubs and wine cellars in Prague”), Kaplan made a highly significant request: “Oleg, might you have a copy of Pravda with Yevtushenko’s poem about Stalin?” The poem in question was “Heirs of Stalin” by Yevgeny Yevtushenko, a direct attack on Stalinism by one of Russia’s most outspoken and influential poets.
But in reality Kaplan was sending a coded message of complicity to his friend, an acknowledgment that they shared the sentiments expressed by Yevtushenko and, like the poet, would not remain inactive in the face of Stalin’s legacy.
“Here Gordievsky and 120 other trainee KGB officers would be inducted into the deepest secrets of Soviet spycraft: intelligence and counterintelligence, recruiting and running spies, legals and illegals, agents and double agents, weapons, unarmed combat and surveillance, the arcane arts and language of this strange trade. Some of the most important instruction was in surveillance detection and evasion, known as “dry-cleaning,” or proverka in KGB jargon: how to spot when you were being followed and dodge surveillance in a way that would appear accidental rather than intentional, since a target that is obviously “surveillance aware” is likely to be a trained intelligence operative.
In Western spy parlance, an officer or agent operating undetected is said to have gone “black.”
戈傑夫斯基學會了如何在公共場合留下隱密記號，藉此建立「信號點」（signal site），例如路燈柱上的一道粉筆記號。這種記號對不經意的觀看者並無意義，卻是告知間諜在特定時間地點見面的信號；他學會如何進行「電刷觸碰」（brush contact），實體將訊息或物品傳遞給另一個人而不被察覺；他也學會如何進行「無人情報交換」（dead-letter drop），在特定地點留下訊息或現金讓另一人取得，而不直接接觸。他學到了代碼和密碼、識別信號、祕密書寫、微點製劑、攝影及易容術；還有經濟學與政治學課程，以及意識型態講授，以強化這些青年間諜對馬克思列寧主義的奉獻。
Oleg learned how to set up a “signal site,” a secret sign left in a public place—a chalk mark on a lamppost for example—that meant nothing to a casual observer but would tell a spy to meet at a certain place and time; how to make a “brush contact,” physically passing a message or item to another person without being spotted; how to make a “dead-letter drop,” leaving a message or cash at a particular spot to be picked up by another without making direct contact. He was taught codes and ciphers, recognition signals, secret writing, preparation of microdots, photography, and disguise. There were classes on economics and politics, as well as ideological tuition to reinforce the young spies’ commitment to Marxism-Leninism.
蘇聯與西方情報部門運用同一種方法選擇假名 ── 必須近似於真名，姓名縮寫相同，因為這樣一來，要是有誰用真名稱呼你，只知道你化名的人很有可能會以為自己聽錯。
Soviet and Western intelligence services used the same method for choosing a pseudonym—it should be close to the real name, with the same initial letter, because that way if a person addressed you by your real name, someone who only knew you by your spy name might well assume he or she had misheard.
Instead of going undercover in some glamorous foreign location, Gordievsky found himself shuffling paper, “a galley slave” filling out forms. Each illegal required a fake persona, with a convincing backstory, a new identity with complete biography and forged paperwork. Each illegal had to be sustained, instructed, and financed, requiring a complex arrangement of signal sites, dead drops, and brush contacts.
活著的鬼魂在中心裡四處出沒，他們是年邁的蘇聯間諜行動英雄。在S局的走廊上，戈傑夫斯基被引見給了科倫．特羅菲莫維奇．莫洛迪（Konon Trofimovich Molody），化名「戈登．朗斯代爾」（Gordon Lonsdale）的他，是史上最成功的非法派遣特務之一。一九四三年，國安會盜用了一個名叫戈登．阿諾德．朗斯代爾（Gordon Arnold Lonsdale）的加拿大死亡男童身分，將這個身分給了在北美洲長大、英語說得無懈可擊的莫洛迪。一九五四年，莫洛迪／朗斯代爾在倫敦定居，喬裝成一名友善快活的自動點唱機和糖果機推銷員，並吸收了一個蒐集海軍機密、人稱「波特蘭間諜網」（Portland Spy Ring）的線民網絡。（他離開莫斯科前，國安會的牙醫在他的牙齒上多鑽了幾個不必要的洞，這意味著莫洛迪只要張開嘴，就能向其他蘇聯間諜指出國安會製造的蛀洞，以證明自己的身分。）
The Center was stalked by living ghosts, heroes of Soviet espionage in their dotage. In the corridors of Directorate S, Gordievsky was introduced to Konon Trofimovich Molody, alias “Gordon Lonsdale,” one of the most successful illegals in history. In 1943, the KGB had appropriated the identity of a dead Canadian child named Gordon Arnold Lonsdale and given it to Molody, who had been raised in North America and spoke faultless English. Molody/Lonsdale settled in London in 1954 and, posing as a jovial salesman of jukeboxes and bubblegum machines, recruited the so-called Portland spy ring, a network of informants gathering naval secrets. (A KGB dentist had drilled several unnecessary holes in his teeth before he left Moscow, which meant Molody could simply open his mouth and point out the KGB-made cavities to confirm his identity to other Soviet spies.)
But the most famous Soviet spy in semiretirement was British. Kim Philby had been recruited by the NKVD in 1933, rose up the ranks of MI6 while feeding vast reams of intelligence to the KGB, and finally defected to the Soviet Union in January 1963, to the deep and abiding embarrassment of the British government. He now lived in a comfortable flat in Moscow, attended by minders, “an Englishman to his fingertips,” as one KGB officer put it, reading the cricket scores in old copies of The Times, eating Oxford marmalade, and frequently drinking himself into a stupor. Philby was revered as a legend within the KGB, and he continued to do odd jobs for Soviet intelligence, including running a training course for English-speaking officers, analyzing occasional cases, and even helping to motivate the Soviet ice hockey team.
To anyone who cared to look closely (and few Russians did), the contrast between the myth and reality of the KGB was self-evident. The Center was a spotlessly clean, brightly lit, amoral bureaucracy, a place at once ruthless, prissy, and puritanical, where international crimes were conceived with punctilious attention to detail. From its earliest days, Soviet intelligence operated without ethical restraint. In addition to collecting and analyzing intelligence, the KGB organized political warfare, media manipulation, disinformation, forgery, intimidation, kidnapping, and murder. The Thirteenth Department, or the “Directorate for Special Tasks,” specialized in sabotage and assassination. Homosexuality was illegal in the USSR, but homosexuals were recruited to entrap gay foreigners, who could then be blackmailed. The KGB was unapologetically unprincipled. Yet it was a prudish, hypocritical, and moralistic place.
The KGB took an intrusive interest in the domestic arrangements of its employees, for no life was private in the Soviet Union. Officers were expected to get married, have children, and stay married. There was calculation as well as control in this: a married KGB officer was considered less likely to defect while abroad, since his wife and family could be held as hostages.
Gordievsky was offered the job, managing a network of undercover spies in Denmark. He accepted with alacrity and delight. As Kim Philby observed after he was recruited into the KGB in 1933: “I did not hesitate. One does not look twice at an offer of enrollment in an elite force.